Table 1.

Lessons, demonstrations, and experiments prepared by ES students for grade school students

3SkinThe skin's role in thermoregulation was demonstrated in an activity similar to that described by Limson et al. (7) using plastic bags made into gloves filled with different insulating materials immersed in ice water.
3MuscleAnatomical arm and leg models with removable muscles were used to create a puzzle for the students to complete. Students had to demonstrate the muscle movement after placing the muscle.
3SkeletonEach student's outline was traced on large sheets of paper, and then they were tasked with drawing in the major bones and labeling them.
4LungEach student's lung volume was determined using a previously designed “Lungometer” lesson (3).
4SkinThe importance of hand washing for health was demonstrated by having students dust their hands with a powder visible under UV light, touch surfaces around the room, and then wash their hands (GloGerm Kit, GloGerm, Moab, UT). The UV light highlighted areas that were dirty even after cleaning.
4HeartStudents designed and used paper towel rolls as stethoscopes to hear their heart beats and were then given actual heart rate monitors and let loose on the playground.
5DigestiveVolunteers aided students in assembling various household items into a “functioning” digestive system similar to the “Junkyard Digestion” activity (6).
5All systemsBasic fitness assessments were discussed and then performed on each student, including tests for flexibility, muscular strength and endurance, and coordination.
5/7NeuromuscularEach student’s vertical jump height was measured using the VerTec and a forceplate, which estimated jump height based on time off the ground. Handgrip dynamometry and pinch strength were measured using specialized research equipment (Biometrics).
7NerveTwo toothpicks separated by a set distance were used to poke different regions of the hands, arms, and face to teach about nerve sensitivity in different regions of the body. Reflexes were discussed using the standard patellar reflex technique.
7CardiorespiratoryHeart rate monitors and stethoscopes were provided to the students to monitor heart rate and breathing at rest and after exercise, with a competition to see who could have the highest heart rate.
AllNutritionVarious activities were done, depending on the grade level using the “Choose My Plate” website and food models to teach about nutrition (10). Each grade also played a matching game to learn about the sugar content of drinks. Groups were given sugar-filled conical tubes, which had to be matched to the amount of sugar in commonly consumed beverages.