Table 3.

Effects of negative work training on lower-body muscle conditioning and functional capacity in clinical and athletic populations

PopulationTrainingIntensityPrimary Outcomes
Frail elderly (26)3 times/wk for 12 wkRPE = 13 (somewhat hard)↑Muscle size, strength, and balance
Cancer survivors (27, 28)3 times/wk for 12 wkRPE = 13 (somewhat hard)↑Muscle size and walking distance
Heart disease (38)3 times/wk for 8 wk60% of peak V̇o2↑Muscle strength and peak V̇o2
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (40)3 times/wk for 5 wk60% of peak V̇o2↑Total work output
Parkinson’s (5)3 times/wk for 12 wkRPE = 13 (somewhat hard)↑Muscle size and walking distance
Total knee replacement (29)3 times/wk for 12 wkRPE = 13 (somewhat hard)↑Muscle size, strength, and power
Anterior cruciate ligament surgery (1618)3 times/wk for 12 wkRPE = 13 (somewhat hard)↑Muscle size and strength
Healthy (9, 30, 31, 33)3 times/wk for 6–8 wk58–66% of peak HR↑Muscle size, strength, power, and leg spring function
Basketball players (36)3 times/wk for 6 wkNot reported↑Jumping height
Alpine skier racers (19)3 times/wk for 6 wkNot reported↑Muscle size and jumping height