Table 2.

Descriptive statistics of students' pretest and posttest scores and ANCOVA summary of students' approaches to learning science

Before TreatmentAfter TreatmentUnivariate ANCOVA
MeansSDMeansSDMean (adjusted)SEF valueη2
Deep motive
    Internet-assisted instruction group3.180.733.850.623.560.1420.46*0.21
    Traditional instruction group2.810.632.520.652.590.16
Deep strategy
    Internet-assisted instruction group3.380.684.050.543.710.1518.64*0.20
    Traditional instruction group2.910.652.650.692.680.18
Surface motive
    Internet-assisted instruction group3.530.543.960.583.650.154.86*0.06
    Traditional instruction group3.080.703.160.613.130.18
Surface strategy
    Internet-assisted instruction group3.290.553.190.512.950.122.700.03
    Traditional instruction group3.150.653.310.623.260.14
  • There were 46 students in the internet-assisted instruction group and 33 students in the traditional instruction group. ANCOVA, analysis of covariance.

  • * P < 0.05.