Experiments for study of Cardiovascular Interactions

Basic physiology
 1. Arterial resistance (vasoconstriction)200% of normal
 2. Arterial resistance (vasodilation)50% of normal
 3. Venous resistance (venoconstriction)200% of normal
 4. Venous compliance50% of normal
 5. Arterial compliance50% of normal
 6. Left ventricular contractility500% of normal
 7. Right ventricular contractility500% of normal
 8. Heart rate on stroke volume and cardiac output (normal, 18, 48, 144, 216 beats/min)
 9. Unstressed blood volume, venous500 ml
10. Venous-return: cardiac-output relationship
Pathophysiology and stress
11. Left heart failure via Emax15% of normal
12. Congestive left heart failureBlood volume
 +750 ml
13. Congestive right and left heart failure compared
14. Intrathoracic pressure (Pit)from −4 to 0 mmHg
15. HemorrhageBlood volume
  Suggest effective compensatory changes to mimic fluid shifts and reflex control of the cardiovascular system following hemorrhage. −1500 ml
16. Hypertension with arteriosclerosisRa = 150% of normal
Ca = 50% of normal
17. ExerciseRa = 20% of normal
Explore and describe effective compensatory changes that act to maintain arterial blood pressure while providing a cardiac output of several times normal during vigorous skeletal muscle exercise.
18. Experimental test bed. {to use the Model without the tutorial}
  • Ra, arterial resistance; Ca, arterial compliance; Emax, slope of end-systolic pressure-volume relationship.